UDP vs TCP. What are the differences?

Introduction UDP and TCP are both transport protocols used for communication between different hosts. They’re part of the transport layer in the broadly-known OSI model. The transport layer is responsible for delivering data to the correct application processes over a network. UDP and TCP combined together contribute to pretty much […]

Stock Market Halted? Circuit Breakers Explained

Introduction On the 9th of March 2020, the New York Stock Exchange halted trading for 15 minutes as the result of triggering level 1 circuit breaker caused by a 7% drop in the S&P 500. The last time the circuit breaker kicked in was back in October 1997. What are […]

Bitcoin Halving Explained. Code analysis.

What is Bitcoin halving? Bitcoin halving is an event that reduces the supply of newly produced bitcoins by half. It occurs every 4 years or to be precise every 210000 blocks and it is a part of the validation logic in the Bitcoin source code. Bitcoin halving is important to […]

Apache Kafka Explained

Pub/Sub Before we dive into Kafka let’s start with a quick recap on what publish/subscribe (pub/sub) messaging is. Publish/subscribe is a messaging pattern where the sender (or the publisher) doesn’t send data directly to a specific receiver. Instead, the publisher classifies the messages without knowing if there are any subscribers […]

Lightning Network Explained

What is the Lightning Network? Lightning Network is a payment protocol that operates on the top of the Bitcoin network (“Layer 2” solution). It’s a network of decentralised nodes that allows for sending a huge number of transactions exteremly fast and for a negligible fee (even sub-satoshi level). The Lightning […]

Two Generals Problem

Two Generals’ Problem

What is the Two Generals’ Problem? The Two Generals’ Problem, also known as the Two Generals’ Paradox or the Two Armies Problem, is a classic computer science and computer communication thought experiment that we’re going to talk about in this post. First of all, to avoid any confusion, we need […]

Actor Model Explained

What is the Actor Model? Actor Model is a conceptual model of concurrent computation originated in 1973. In the Actor Model, an actor is a fundamental unit of computation and everything is an actor. The only allowed operations for an actor are: to create another actor, to send a message […]

Low latency in Java

What is latency? Let’s start with what latency really means. A quick Google search gives us the following definition: “latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response”. If you’re still confused by this definition let’s imagine you’re playing an online computer game. If your Internet connection is slow […]


What are robo-advisors?

What are robo-advisors? Have you ever come across a term robo-advisor? Have you ever wondering what that is? The first thing that comes to your mind is probably the “robo” bit, but if you’re imagining a human-like, metal creature you cannot be further from the truth. Robo-advisors are digital, financial […]